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  • Author: Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg
  • e-Sword Version: 9.x - 10.x

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e-Sword 9+ Module Download:
Download Hengstenberg, E.W. - Christology of the Old Testament (4 vols)

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Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg

e-Sword Version:
9.x - 10.x

The Importance of Hengstenberg's Christology Of The Old Testament (4 volumes)
Hengstenberg's Christology reflects a classic Lutheran focus on finding Christ in every Bible Book.  His defense of supernaturalism in miracles and prophecy makes his scholarship conservative. Even though he approaches Scripture from a non-dispensational and non-Baptist way, his scholarship is worth reading and reflection.

This is the major work of one of the most conspicuous and able champions of orthodoxy of the nineteenth century.  This great study of the Person and work of Christ, the Redeemer, as He appears in type and prophecy on the pages of the Hebrew Scriptures, has enjoyed a remarkable ministry of usefulness for over a century and a quarter. It has been an indispensable reference work both for professor and student in institutions where the Word of God is honored and the truth emphasized that the Person and work of the Redeemer forms the warp and woof of the fabric of divine revelation.

Hengstenberg composed and published his influential four-volume Christology of the Old Testament (Christologie des Alten Testaments, 1828-1835) near the start of his very influential career in Germany.  The work was translated into English and published at Edinburgh, 1854-1858.  His Christology has gone through many English reprints, and has been influential through its combating of rationalism.

If evangelicals are to "stand on the shoulders of giants" to promote the faith with greater clarity and insight, it is necessary to benefit from godly scholars who have preceded us.  In 2001, John Sailhamer published a thought-provoking article regarding "The Messiah and the Hebrew Bible."

Although Sailhamer described well his proposed "Messianic" approach to the Old Testament, he spoke rather summarily of Hengstenberg, without documenting details from his Christology. Evangelicals should rediscover the contributions of earlier men like Hengstenberg.  A book is without influence unless it is read.

Strengths of Hengstenberg's Christology
Commitment to Scholarship.  Hengstenberg showed facility in using primary sources from languages other than German.  His quotes flow freely into Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Dutch, and English.  For many students of today, a glossing translation of other languages might be needed to follow the flow of thought.  But Hengstenberg sought to quote accurately and interpret carefully the views of those with whom he was interacting, both rationalist and Jewish scholars.

Commitment to Biblical Truth. Hengstenberg traced through the Old Testament prophecies regarding Christ following a Septuagint / Protestant / English canonical order.  He began with the Pentateuch, and then considered passages from the historical and poetic books, before he traced through the Prophets (Hosea through Malachi, inserting Major Prophets where chronologically appropriate).

His thorough work on passages related to the Messiah make these sections worthwhile for commentary study as well as for theological study.

Hengstenberg literal interpretation and he opposed rationalistic presuppositions in interpretation. When discussing "The Twig of Jesse" in Isaiah 11 and 12, he named several rationalistic commentators of his day:  Eichhorn, De Wette, Gesenius, Hitzig, Maurer, and Ewald.

Commitment to Detailed Exegesis.  Hengstenberg's Christology is filled with carefully reasoned expositions of passages, studying the Old Testament directly and interacting with opposing positions.  He also shows a willingness to modify his views upon further study.

For example, in Daniel 9:24 "to anoint a most holy (or holy of holies)" Hengstenberg understood in his first edition as referring to the church of the New Testament.

But in his revised edition he understands the anointing to be the Holy Spirit coming upon Jesus of Nazareth, commencing with his baptism (Acts 10:38), "continuing through the entire period of Christ's work on earth," and on through "the outpouring of the Spirit ... The church is anointed along with Christ its Head."

[However, Hengstenberg never considered the possibility of the anointing being a literal anointing of a literal Kingdom (Millennial) Temple at the Second
Advent of Christ to earth.]

Recognition of the Flow of History.  Hengstenberg sought to trace the progressive unfolding of Messianic Predictions in Genesis, from the first vague mention (3:15), through a general promise to Noah and Shem, to the detailed prediction of Jacob (Genesis 49) that  the Person of Messiah would come through Judah's line, and His scepter would ultimately rule "over all the nations of the whole earth."

Weaknesses With Hengstenberg's Christology
Hengstenberg sometimes comfounded provertbial truth with prophetic prediction. He also had problems with Daniel 9 chronology, as viewed from a premillennial, dispensationalist perspective (see link below for more information).

About Hengstenberg
Ernst Wilhelm Hengstenberg (1802-1869) headed toward a theological career, Hengstenberg studied philology, philosophy, Old Testament exegesis, Arabic, and hurch history.  In 1826 he became professor extraordinarius in theology

Most English-speaking Protestants know little of Hengstenberg.  His religious life was a series of struggles toward doctrinal purity, from his Lutheran perspective.  But his greatest contribution came through his conservative writings which defended supernatural Christianity against the rationalism of his day.

And through his writing, he being dead yet speaketh. Early in his career, Hengstenberg published Christologie des Alten Testaments (1829-1835), and throughout his life he remained consistent to the evangelical positions taken in his Christology.

This description is a summary of (and contains many quotes by) Dr. Gilbert G. Braithwaite’s “A Review of Hengstenberg's Christology of the Old Testament from a Premillennial Dispensational Perspective.”

(Thanks to LarryG for suggesting this module with his Raw Module Content submission).

Table of Contents
Title Page
Preface to the Reprint Edition
Translator's Preface
The Author's Preface
Prepared By Biblesupport.com

The Messianic Prophecies in the Pentateuch
---- The Protevangelium
---- The Blessings of Noah Upon Shem and Japheth
---- The Promise to the Patriarchs
---- The Blessing of Jacob Upon Judah
---- Balaam's Prophecy
---- Moses' Promise of the Prophet
The Angel of the Lord in the Pentateuch, and the Book of Joshua
The Promise in 2 Samuel, Chap. 7
2 Samuel 23:1-7
The Song of Solomon
Messianic Predictions in the Prophets
---- The Prophet Hosea
------- General Preliminary Remarks
------- The Section Hosea 1-3
------- Hosea 1-2:3 (2:1)
---- The Prophet Joel
------- Preliminary Remarks
------- Joel 1-2:17
------- On Joel 2:23
------- Exposition of Joel 3 (2:28-32)
---- The Prophet Amos
------- General Preliminary Remarks
------- Amos 9
---- The Prophet Jonah
---- The Prophet Micah
------- Preliminary Remarks
------- Micah 1 and 2
------- Micah 3-4
------- Micah 4:9-14
------- Micah 5:1
---- History of the Interpretation
------- 1. Among the Jews.
------- 2. Among the Christians.
------- The Quotation in Matthew 2:6
------- Micah 5:2-14
------- Micah 6, 7

The Messianic Prophecies in the Prophets
---- The Prophet Isaiah
------- General Preliminary Remarks
------- The Prophecy, Isaiah 2-4 The Sprout Of The Lord
------- The Prophecy, Isaiah 7 Immanuel
------- The Prophecy, Isaiah 8:23-9:6 (Isaiah 9:1-7) Unto Us A Child Is Born
------- The Twig Of Jesse (Isaiah 11, 12)
------- On Matthew 2:23
------- Isaiah 12
------- Isaiah 13:1-14:27
------- Isaiah 17, 18
------- Isaiah 19
------- Isaiah 23 The Burden Upon Tyre
------- Isaiah 24-27
------- General Preliminary Remarks On Isaiah 40-66
------- Isaiah 42:1-9
------- Isaiah 49:1-9
------- Isaiah 50:4-11
------- Isaiah 51:1-16
------- Isaiah 52:13-53:12
------- I. History Of The Interpretation
------- II. The Arguments Against The Messianic Interpretation
------- III. The Arguments In Favour Of The Messianic Interpretation
------- IV. Examination Of The Non-Messianic Interpretation
------- Isaiah 55:1-5
------- The Prophecy, Isaiah 61:1-3
---- The Prophet Zephaniah
---- The Prophet Jeremiah
------- General Preliminary Remarks
------- The Section, Jeremiah 3:14-17
------- Jeremiah 23:1-8
------- Jeremiah 31:31-40
------- Jeremiah 33:14-26

The Messianic Prophecies in the Prophets
---- The Prophet Ezekiel
------- General Preliminary Remarks
------- The Section: Ezekiel 11:14-21
------- The Section: Ezekiel 16:53-63
------- The Section: Ezekiel 17:22-24
------- The Section:  Ezekiel 21:25-27
------- The Section: Ezekiel 34:23-31
------- The Section: Ezekiel 36:22-32
------- The Section: Ezekiel 37:22-28
------- The New Temple (Ezekiel 40-48)
------- The Section: Ezekiel 47:1-12
---- Daniel
------- Daniel 7:13, 14
------- The Seventy Weeks: Daniel 9:24-27 (General Survey)
------- Exposition
------- Precision of the Dates
------- Commencement of the Seventy Weeks
------- Termination of the Seventy Weeks
------- Harmony Between the Prophecy and Its Fulfillment with Regard to the Interval Betwee...
------- The Last Week; and the Half-Week
------- Modern Non-Messianic Expositors
---- The Prophet Haggai
------- Haggai 2:6-9
---- The Prophet Zechariah
------- Zechariah 1:1-6
------- Zechariah 1:7-6:15
------- Zechariah 7 and 8
------- Zechariah 9:1-10
------- On the Land of Hadrach
------- Zechariah 9:11-10:12
------- Zechariah 10

Messianic Predictions in the Prophets
---- The Prophet Zechariah
------- Zechariah 11
------- Zechariah 12:1-13:6
------- Zechariah 13:7-9
------- Zechariah 14
---- Malachi
------- Malachi 2:17-3:6
------- The Section-Malachi 3:13-4:6
---- The New Testament and the Prophecies of Malachi
------- Matthew 3:1-12
------- Matthew 11:1-14
------- Matthew 14:2; 16:14
------- Matthew 17
------- Matthew 12:12 and John 2:13-22
------- Matthew 21:24
------- Luke 1:16-17
------- Luke 1:43
------- John 1:6
------- John 1:9
------- John 1 Ver. 15 Compared With Ver. 39
------- John 1:21-23
------- John 1:27
------- John 1:31
------- 1 Corinthians 16:22

---- Appendix I: Importance of the Messianic Prophecies
---- Appendix II: Messianic Expectations Among the Heathen
---- Appendix III: The Divinity of the Messiah in the Old Testament
---- Appendix IV: The Suffering and Atoning Christ in the Old Testament
---- Appendix V: History of the Interpretation of the Messianic Prophecies
---- Appendix VI: The Nature of Prophecy

Josh, thanks for posting this.  It was referenced in a book I was looking through today.  Hengstenberg takes the position in this work that Michael the archangel is the same as Jesus Christ - the divine, eternal word of God.  (like Matthew Henry, John Gill, and others).

Josh, thanks for posting this.  It was referenced in a book I was looking through today.  Hengstenberg takes the position in this work that Michael the archangel is the same as Jesus Christ - the divine, eternal word of God.  (like Matthew Henry, John Gill, and others).

This is one of those strange ones, that either I miss-understand or something does not compute.

The Adventists claim as it seems, do others that Michael the archangel is none other than Jesus Christ.

Jud 1:9  But Michael the archangel, when he disputed with the devil and argued about the body of Moses, did not dare pronounce against him a railing judgment, but said, "The Lord rebuke you!" (NASB) This verse tells me he is not the Lord Jesus Christ.

Maybe you have some other suggested works that will help clarify this more?


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